Skin Cancer - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Skin cancer is the harmful, malignant and uncontrolled growth of skin cells. An uncontrolled growth is one that has the potential to cause death. Skin cancers are often divided into two general groups: malignant melanomas and non-melanoma cancers.
Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant cancer cells are found in the outer layers of the skin. The epidermis layer of the skin contains three kinds of cells.Most of those cells are squamous cells. Cells near the bottom of the epidermis are called basal cells. The cells that provide pigment (color) to the skin are known as melanocytes.If left unchecked, these cancer cells can spread from the skin into other tissues and organs.
Causes for skin cancer:
The main causes of skin cancer includes:-
- Complexion -People with light-colored skin, hair, and eyes are more prone to get affected by skin cancer.
- Genetics - If there is a history of skin cancer in your family, you are probably at a higher risk.
- Age - Non melanoma skin cancers are more common after age 40. Thus, it affects mainly to old aged peoples.
- Sun exposure and sunburn - sunburn can damage your skin, and this damage can lead to skin cancer. Exposure to the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays appears to be the most important factor in the development of skin cancer.
- latitude factor- the rays of the sun are strongest near the equator, So people living there are more prone to this disease.
- Having many moles, freckles or birthmarks may also indicate the occurrence of this disease.
- Occupational exposure to coal tar, pitch, creosote, arsenic compounds, or radium may also cause skin cancer.
Symptoms of Skin Cancer:-
Symptoms of Squamous Cell Skin Cancer includes:-
- A firm, red nodule or a flat lesion with a cursted surface may appear on your skin, most commonly at your lips, face, ears, neck, hands or arms.
- A large brownish spot with darker speckles could occur in skin cancer.
- Skin cancer may lead to the changes in texture of skin.
- A simple mole that changes in color or size.
- A sore that does not heal is the early symptom of skin cancer.
- A waxy bump, may also be seen in skin cancer.
- A spot or growth that continually itches, hurts, becomes crusty, scabs, or bleeds are the early symptoms of skin cancer.
Treatment for skin cancer:
The effective remedies for skin cancer includes:-
- Photodynamic therapy : Photodynamic therapy uses a certain type of light and a special chemical to kill cancer cells.
- Surgery: It is often used as a treatment for skin cancer. There are several types of surgery depending on the stage and location of cancer.
- Immunotherapy :Immunotherapy of melanoma involves injecting a medication to boost the body's own immune system, helping it to slow the growth of the cancer.
- Radiation Therapy: It is an effective remedy for skin cancer, with high-energy rays (such as x-rays) to kill or shrink cancer cells. The radiation may come from outside the body or from radioactive materials placed directly in the tumor.
- Topical Chemotherapy: is done directly onto the skin rather than being given by mouth or injected into a vein.
- Grafting : uses a skin graft to replace skin that is damaged when cancer is removed.
- Biological therapy : Biological therapy tries to get your own body to fight cancer by using materials made by your own body, or made in a laboratory, to boost, direct, or restore your body's natural defenses against disease.
- Laser therapy: This may also help by using a narrow beam of light to remove cancer cells.