Dysplastic Nevi - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
A dysplastic nevus, is an
mole. Dysplastic nevi are generally larger than ordinary moles and have irregular and indistinct borders marked by melanocytic dysplasia. A dysplastic nevus can even give rise to malignant melanoma. They usually have a macular component and keep on changing there shape. The borders are irregular and often hazy. There may be variation of color, with admixtures of tan, brown, and pink.
Dysplastic nevi can be found anywhere, but are most common on the trunk. Patients may have one, several, or dozens of dysplastic nevi at the same time. They often occur on sun-protected areas such as buttocks, breasts, and scalp. Although no minimum diameter is defined for dysplastic nevi, but they usually tend to be larger than common nevi, often greater than 5 mm in diameter.
Causes of Dysplastic Nevi:
The most Common Causes of Dysplastic Nevi includes:-
- Family History: In 10-15% patients, the main cause of developing dysplastic nevi is a heredity problem.
- Weakened Immune System: People whose immune systems have been suppressed by medication, such as organ transplant patients, have a greater risk for developing dysplastic nevi.
- Severe, Blistering Sunburns: These causes leads to skin infection, which in turn may develop dysplastic nevi.
- Fair Skin: People with light skin who generally get sunburn very easily are more likely to develop dysplastic nevi than white people who have more pigment.
- Severe Sunburns Episodes: People who have had three or more episodes of severe sunburn during their childhood are at an increased risk for developing dysplastic nevi.
- Xeroderma Pigmentosum: Xeroderma Pigmentosum is a rare, hereditary skin disease. It results from a defect in an enzyme that normally repairs ultraviolet-damaged DNA. People with this disease are at 1000 times more risk for developing dysplastic nevi.
- Aging: The older peoples are more prone to get affected by dysplastic nevi.
- Number and thickness of Common Nevi : Most people have about 10 to 40 common moles on their body. People with more than 100 moles are at a larger risk for developing dysplastic nevi.
Symptoms of Dysplastic Nevi:
Some of the Possible Symptoms of Dysplastic Nevi are as:-
- It occasionally itches and causes a pricking/burning sensation.
- It is inflamed and surrounded by redness.
- Moles are usually pink, tan, brown, or the same color as the skin. Other colors are sometimes noted as the symptoms of dysplastic nevi.
- Sometimes, some moles may begin to bleed, crack or itch, which gives the indication of dysplastic nevi.
- You may have the feeling of acute pain.
- People with dysplastic nevi often have a lot of them, perhaps as many as 100 or more.
- The lesion comes and goes in the case of dysplastic nevi.
- It is dry, rough to the touch and sensitive.
- Dysplastic nevi are usually irregular in shape, with notched or fading borders.
- Dysplastic nevi may be flat or raised, and the surface may be smooth or rough ("pebbly").
Treatment of Dysplastic Nevi:
The most Common Treatments for Dysplastic Nevi are as:-
- Self-examination at home is critical for detecting early changes. Photographs can be helpful as well.
- Treatment of dysplastic nevi can be done by removing the abnormal mole.
- Sometimes Dysplastic Nevi may turn into a skin cancer, in such conditions the treatment can vary depending on the area where the dysplastic nevi occurs.
- The dysplastic nevi can be treated by the procedure as - surrounding skin and
mole are cleaned and a small amount of lidocaine (Novocain, or similar) is injected shallowly into the skin. The mole is then gently cut out.
- Treatment of dysplastic nevi is done by destroying the abnormal cells. This is usually done by freezing the skin with liquid nitrogen at the doctor's office.
- Other techniques include using a prescription cream (5-flurouracil) on the abnormal skin.
- Radiation therapy is most common in these cases. The amount of sessions required is small in comparison to other forms of cancer it consists of a small beam aimed directly at the lesion to kill the cells that are affecting the area.
- Dysplastic moles can also be removed by microscopic evaluation.
- People at higher risk for dysplastic nevi should minimize exposure to other risk factors associated with it. For example, during the summer one should use a good sunscreen lotion of minimum SPF-15 and wear a broad-brimmed hat when outdoors.