Comedo - Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Blackheads are small, dark spots, which is mainly caused by a small plug in the opening of a follicle. It can also be defined as a noninflammatory lesion of acne, consisting of a plug of keratin and sebum within the dilated orifice of a hair follicle, frequently containing the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes.
Types of comedo:-
Closed comedo: It has an obstructed opening to the skin and may rupture to cause a low-grade skin inflammatory reaction in the area. The closed comedo, is commonly known as whitehead. Closed comedo which results from an obstruction of the pilosebaceous orifice that is deeper and less obvious and generally seen in association with open comedones in the same patient.
Open comedo: A plug of keratin and sebum within a hair follicle that is blackened at the surface having a wide opening to the skin and is capped with a blackened mass of skin debris. It is commonly known as a blackhead.
The possible symptoms for comedo are as:-
- The primary sign of acne consisting of a dilated hair follicle filled with keratin squamae, bacteria, and sebum oil.
- Blackheads are open to the skin's surface and become darkened at the surface by exposure to oxygen. The black word used in blackheads is due to skin pigment, not dirt.
- They commonly appear on the face and shoulders, but they may also develop on the trunk, arms, legs, and buttocks. They can occur at any age but most common in teenagers and may be present even in infants
The main causes of comedo may includes:-
- A blackhead occurs when the trapped sebum and bacteria partially open to the surface and turn black due to melanin, the skin's pigment. Blackheads can last for a long time because the contents very slowly drain to the surface.
- Blackheads are promoted by excessive cellular exfoliation, which quickly clog or block the follicles.
- Actual causes of blackheads is a mix of both excess skin oil and sebum and congesting toxins that are being expelled through your skin from the blood and nutrients providing lymph fluid .
- Blackheads can also be caused by Harmonal changes,wrong food habits and improper skin care.
- Use of skin-care products or make-up are the main culprit in blackhead formation . These products will mix with body's natural oil and add to the build-up that can block pores.
- The cause of Comedo is closely related to blocked hair follicles, also known as pores. Exact reason of blocking of these pores is not fully known, some contributing factors include:
- Genetics -whether or not there is any member in the family affected from the diseaseand to what extent.
- Dietary and vitamin intake or deficiency and
- Stress related factors
The effective treatsments for comedo may include as:-
- Gentle, water-soluble cleansers ,avoid bar soap because the ingredients used in the soap can clog the pores in your skin.
- Exfoliate your skin on a regular basis with something like a basic apricot scrub.This helps in removing dead cells befor they results in a clogging of pores.
- Absorb excess oil.
- Use a gentle and water-soluble cleanser.
- Light squeezing: Stuff from inside a blackhead can be removed with light handed squeezing.
- Chemical peels: Skin care products with salicyclic acid and chemical peels with glycolic acid are very useful in removing dead skin cells from the pores, effectively and quickly.
- Dermatologists uses Topical and Oral antibiotics and also oral contraceptives for women to cure Comedo.